Manual Family and Gender in the Pacific: Domestic Contradictions and the Colonial Impact

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Table of contents

AFOT moves beyond cultural competence towards culturally restorative land-based practice. The program focuses on restoring the cultural practices and relationships that historically promoted wellness in Aboriginal cultures and societies, many of which are connected to land through ceremony, collection and use of medicines, and other activities.

Trauma is overrepresented within Aboriginal families and communities in Canada. The exclusion of Aboriginal peoples from their lands and resources, the imposition of foreign land use and governance systems including the reserve system and band form of governance , 2 the Indian Residential School System and the Aboriginal child welfare system have each left legacies of intergenerational trauma. For those seeking immediate and practical solutions for our national project of truth and reconciliation, the legacy of the past is daunting. However, we can see the possibilities for reconciliation in restorative practices that shift relationships.

Intergenerational trauma brings to light the ways that resilience, adaptation and innovation are shared across generations.

Restorative practices and approaches, whether they are used in the context of social work, education, health care or elsewhere, can be helpful for Aboriginal peoples if they:. Restorative practices and approaches provide a concrete means to address colonial history, while recognizing the complexity of intergenerational trauma and working toward the mutual understanding and respect that truth and reconciliation requires.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Steckley, J. Toronto: Prentice Hall. TD Economics. June Dekel, R. Is there intergenerational transmission of trauma? American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 78 3 , Frazier, K. Juste, S.

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Trangenerational trauma and child sexual abuse: Reconceptualizing cases involving young survivors of CSA. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 31 1 , Milloy, J. A national crime: The Canadian government and the residential school system, — Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.

Hick, S. Social work in Canada: An introduction 2nd ed.

Toronto: Thompson Education Publishing. Aboriginal Children in Care Working Group. Ottawa: Council of the Federation Secretariat. CBC News. Richards, J.

Bibliography

Aboriginal education: Strengthening the foundation. Ottawa: Canadian Policy Research Network. Patrick, C. Aboriginal homelessness in Canada: A literature review. Fine, S.

Hegemonic masculinity: combining theory and practice in gender interventions

Globe and Mail. Residential school nutrition experiments explained to Kenora survivors: Historian Ian Mosby shares evidence First Nations children being intentionally malnourished. Truth and Reconciliation Commission: By the numbers.


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Summary report is only one step in reconciliation. Laskoski, S. Aboriginal children and child welfare policies. However, the original research reported at the Apia meeting, and detailed in the papers in this volume, has made it clear that "we must radically rethink the relationships between person, community, culture and place for all of us, not just for immigrants and ethnic groups" Zelinsky and Lee if we are to understand better the development of transnational communities and their implications for social change and environmental transformation.

Bedford, R. Castles, S. Cohen, R. Findlay, A. Macpherson, C. Spoonley, P. Van Heer, N. Zelinsky, W. Towards the end of the s the study of population mobility in the eastern Pacific, Polynesia, as predominantly an economic issue has been superseded by studies which take population mobility as a given and examine its social and cultural complexity in various locations and using various texts Macpherson , Liki Detailed analysis of the flows and composition of people moving into, out of and through the countries of the eastern Pacific have shown that international migration is significant, complex and often contradictory see Bedford and Connell for useful overviews.

Different sorts of people are moving between different places for different reasons and for varying lengths of time. The cumulative effect of these complex mobility patterns increasingly constitutes the multi-local identities of many Pacific Islanders Macpherson , Ward International debates on climate change and biodiversity have further emphasised the critical importance of Pacific Island environments and biodiversity not only for the islands themselves but also for global concerns.

This research project brings together issues of population mobility and environmental transformation in an exploratory analysis of how domestic environments are being constituted by the multi-local identities of mobile Pacific peoples. The initial focus was on Samoa but as the project unfolded, so too did other perspectives on the guiding questions. In the end we have papers on Samoa, Tonga, and New Zealand. The initial focus on Samoa is in some ways accidental in that this was where the principle researcher, who self-identifies as a New Zealand Cook Islander, lived.


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  • However, perhaps because Samoans constitute the largest group of Polynesians in New Zealand and there are now many New Zealand-born Samoans, there have been a growing number of studies in New Zealand which examine the complex creation of Samoan identities Anae , Macpherson , Macpherson et al. This study could well have been located in the Cook Islands or Tonga and it is hoped that it can be expanded in this direction.

    As Samoans have moved through the Pacific and beyond, so too have ideas, fashions and money, making for an increasingly diverse Samoa — not that it was ever as homogenous as it was thought to be. Flowers have always been a feature of Pacific Island identity and culture and appear in many Pacific motifs such as on Cook Island tivaevae quilts , contemporary art, and clothing styles.

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    Flowers are used extensively for church displays, greetings, meetings, funerals and weddings. Recent developments highlight some ways in which this is changing. At the same time, there has been a notable increase in the development of small businesses in Samoa, which grow and sell flowers and plants, both native and introduced varieties. Now in the late s, palagi European flower displays have an acceptable and even privileged place in these same contexts. It is not only as part of Pacific identities within which flower motifs emerge. To date, much flower production is for the local market.

    In the case of Fiji this extends to the larger tourist market.

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    However, fragrant plants and flowers have moved, both commercially and privately, throughout the region for many years. For example maire leaves from Mauke, in the Cook Islands, are sold in Hawaii and tipani frangipani have been air-freighted from Rarotonga, the Cook Islands to Porirua, New Zealand for weddings. In the context of new global trade developments, the ability of Pacific Island floriculture businesses to flourish must be understood in the context of complex issues arising from the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights TRIPS agreement vis a vis the Convention on Biological Diversity.

    Already, in the Caribbean the floriculture industry has developed in response to demands from markets outside the region, which has altered the landscape in the Caribbean as well as set up another island industry too closely tied to non-Caribbean commercial interests. Domestic gardens are built and developed on the basis of the multiple needs of owners and according to diverse ideas about design.

    In this way, gardens in Samoa can be examined for the ways in which they constitute and in turn are constituted by the people who design and build them.

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    Flower gardens are one area of the domestic environment, which is clearly in the domain of women. It is predominantly women who are involved in flower gardens or the planting and tendering of ornamental and fragrant plants. Among other things it is widely thought that tending domestic flower gardens enables women to stay close to home where they remain under surveillance and can still attend to the care of children, the aged and the sick.