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- Global jihadism : theory and practice / Jarret M. Brachman | National Library of Australia
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- Jihadism Transformed: Al-Qaeda and Islamic State's Global Battle of Ideas
It is truly striking that such a phenomenon could have appeared in a society with a nomadic cultural background characterized by a love for freedom and moderates religious practice. How such radical ideology as the Global Jihadism has been instilled in Somalia is the main concern of this research which seeks to uncover key features of Alshabaab discourse. There is not a single day without the international media reporting on a terrorist attacks by a jihadist group in countries like Nigeria, Libya, or Syria, to give just a few examples. One factor, and not the least, which could explain this situation is the growing sophistication of jihadist propaganda, and their ability to use the internet for spreading their messages.
However, and above all, this rapid expansion translates the lack of an adequate global response against this radical ideology Jarret M. Brachman, , p. Such response necessitates first a deeper understanding of the nature of the Global jihadism, the objectives sought by its adherents, and the way they propagate and legitimize their cause. One cannot fully grasp the jihadist phenomenon without investigating the genesis of their ideology, and moreover the concept of jihad itself.
The present research is concerned with the contemporary jihadist discourse that emerged in Somalia, in recent years, and which since then has affected many countries in East Africa. Alshabaab, the Somali based jihadists militant, is the main organization that has affiliated itself with Al-Qaida, and which has spread Global jihadism ideology in the region. The organization has a very active communication strategy that serves its propaganda, a fact that almost all existing researches on the militant group have mentioned.
This study, however, is aiming at understanding how Global jihadism ideology is legitimized in Somalia and in the region. As such, the technical aspects of Alshabaab communication strategy as well as the ways and means of its propaganda are considered less crucial than the content of its discourse. As pointed out by Teun A. Van Dijk , p. In this chapter, for a better understanding of the concepts and paradigms that the research is dealing with, at first the literature on the notion of ideology is reviewed.
Secondly, the concept of jihad and its inception in the original sources and in classical times are discussed. Thirdly, the writings of the modern and contemporary ideologues of jihad are explored, in particular those who have put the concept in practice. Then the discussion focuses on the expansion of Global Jihadism, and its emergence in Somalia.
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Finally, researches and existing studies on Alshabaab are reviewed. The literature on the concept of ideology reveals that it is rather a versatile and difficult notion to define. According to John Gerring ,p.
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The term, introduced by the ideologues of the French Enlightenments had known various historical connotations throughout time David Hawkes, ,p. Then, in the first half of the twentieth century, the term is used to refer almost exclusively to totalitarian political systems, including communist regimes.
Thus history and its tribulation has impacted on the meaning of the concept of ideology and rendered it difficult to define at once. The wide scope of meaning that the concept of ideology bears has discouraged many in the social science to use it for their work.
Global jihadism : theory and practice / Jarret M. Brachman | National Library of Australia
For instance, as pointed by Terry Eagleton ,p. Others have coined terms such as belief systems, worldview, philosophy, value, etc. However, according to Gerring, , p. In an endeavor to synthesize the core meaning of the concept of ideology, Gerring made an interesting comprehensive framework of all attributes associated with the concept.
He proposes, for the sake of differentiation from others concepts, to limit the concept of ideology to political subject matter Gerring, , p.
In general, Ideology has often been attributed a pejorative connotation; usually dogmatic; expressing rigid belief, or related to domination. According to Terry Eagleton , p. Post-modernists thinkers, characterized by their skepticism further discussed the matter and raised epistemological questions about the objectivity of ideologies and their relation with truth. The various debates on the concept of ideology have impacted on how it is analyzed. According to Jonathan L. Maynard, , p. As shown in this very brief overview, the concept of ideology is at the center of various academic debates, it is also a central term of social science discourse Gerring, ,p.
Furthermore, the emergence of Al-Qaida and the propagation of its call for jihad have once again made the notion of ideology relevant nowadays. Al-Qaida has initiated and propagated a discourse, which it justifies on religious ground the Jihad , calling Muslims to struggle against the West, the Jews, and their puppets rulers in Muslims countries in order to be fee of current political, economical, and cultural domination.
In order to investigate its real meaning, scholars have explored the classical sources of Islam and the evolution of the concept of jihad from the time of prophet Mohamed up to the modern and post-modern era. Such an approach has the benefit of highlighting the evolution of the concept of jihad and the importance of contextual and historical circumstances for its interpretation. According to David Cook , p. In Arabic, jihad means to strive, or to persevere and according to Shireen Burkhi ,p.
Muslims scholars, in general, held the view that jihad has various meaning, including but not exclusively, fighting. However, as pointed by Burkhi ,p. The concept of jihad is also differently categorized. According to Burkhi ,p. Another classification divides jihad into three categories; jihad with the hand, jihad with the tongue, and jihad of the soul Cook, , p.
Jihad with the Hand has a violent and militaristic nature.
Jihad with the tongue means publicly denouncing unjust ruler whose conduct is deemed overtly un-Islamic. Lastly, Jihad of the soul is a conception developed by Sufi writers which emphasize the inner struggle against oneself Cook, , p. It should be said, however, that discussions on jihad are usually limited to the militaristic jihad and the spiritual jihad. In Islamic jurisprudence the militaristic jihad is rigorously bounded and it is divided into defensive and offensive terms.
According to most Islamic scholars, when an outside force invades Muslim territory it is incumbent on all Muslims to wage jihad to protect the faith and the faithful. In contrasts the offensive jihad is aimed at propagating the religion by physically subduing any potential obstacle to its peaceful spread. Wiktorowicz ,p. Determining which type of jihad is more important than the others is a contentious point reflected by the literature on the subject. Contemporary authors are also divided on this question, whether they are Muslims or not.
According to Cook , p.
Unsurprisingly Ibn Taymiyya is the primary source of inspiration for contemporary jihadists who refer abundantly to his writing. Others opinion see jihad in Islam as a spiritual endeavor and it is only in case of aggression that Muslims are allowed to defend themselves. According to Paul Heck , p. Furthermore, they claim that it is not sustained by historical evidences Cook, , p. During the twentieth century, many Islamic ideologues have sought to redefine the concept of jihad in a context characterized by decolonization, political resistance and cold war between the United States and the Soviet Union.
The classical sources of jihad have been re-interpreted in modern times for two reasons principally; first for a puritanical reformist endeavor, exemplified by the Wahhabi movement that emerged in Arabia at the end of the eighteen century and second for political resistance against western colonization. Eventually, during the course of the twentieth century and towards its end, the two justifications gradually became unified in a single school of thought, represented by the Salafi current of Islamic thinking from which radical views such as the global jihad ideology propagated by Al-Qaida have emerged.
It denotes rejection of the divinity of God and the adulation of mortals. In this sense, jahiliyya is not just a specific historical period referring to the era preceding the advent of Islam , but a state of affairs. Such a state of human affairs existed in the past, exists today, and may exist in the future, taking the form of jahiliyya, that mirror-image and sword enemy of Islam. Although Qutb was influenced by Mawdudi, he departed from the moderate method of the latter who advocated peaceful ways of implementing change in the society by working inside the political framework Quintan Wiktorowicz, In fact Mawdudi founded a political party in Pakistan, the jamaat Islamiyya whereas Qutb called for jihad against rulers in Islamic countries whom he deemed to be apostates Wiktorowicz, ,p.
These thinkers inspired later jihad ideologues and terrorist organizations such as Al-Qaida which are also grounding their ideology on the original Islamic sources for legitimizing their cause. As mentioned earlier, these contemporary proponents of the global jihad ideology stem from the salafi movement. According to Wiktorowicz ,p. Salafis believe that because the companions learned about Islam directly from the Prophet, they commanded a pure understanding of the faith.
Subsequent practices, in contrast, were sullied by religious innovations that infected the Muslim community over time. Every behavior must be sanctioned by these religious sources. Although there is no clear cut line of division it could said that supporter of global jihad believes that the use of violence is legitimate for establishing an Islamic state while others salafist think that peaceful propagation of Islam and advice, to ruler, usually in private are better Wiktorowicz,,p.
The use of violence for establishing the past glory of Muslim societies is an essential feature of the global jihad ideology. Azzam call for Muslims to wage jihad in Afghanistan for the sake of Islam and Allah alone was made credible by his experience in fighting on the battlefield. His most popular writing on jihad is Ilhaq bi-l-qafila Join the Caravan Cook, ,p.
Jihadism Transformed: Al-Qaeda and Islamic State's Global Battle of Ideas
The latter was assassinated in in Pakistan. After the fall of the Soviet Union, the USA became sole world power and its military intervention in the gulf during the first Iraq war, displeased many among the Arab veterans whom had waged jihad in Afghanistan. The refusal of Saudi government to employ these Arab veterans as proposed by Bin Laden further radicalized these individuals. Finally, Ben Laden sought to revive the call for jihad, this time against the USA and its allies in the region. For this purpose he created Alqaeda by transforming the existing organization set up by Azzam , the Maktab Al Khidama services Bureau for recruiting young Arabs Syed Saleem Shahzad, Ben Laden sought to garner support for a global jihad against the United States by using spectacular terrorist methods.
According to Shahzad ,p.